Track Categories

The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.

Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into interstitial spaces and then absorbed into blood rather than through a duct. The major glands of the endocrine system include the Pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are neuroendocrine organs. The pancreas is an endocrine gland that produces important hormones including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide, all of which circulate in the blood The beta cells constitute the predominant type of cell in the islets. The beta cells are particularly important because they make insulin. Degeneration of the beta cells is the main cause of type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

  • Track 1-1Adrenal gland
  • Track 1-2Reproductive glands
  • Track 1-3Pituitary gland
  • Track 1-4Pancreas
  • Track 1-5Beta cells

Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Insulin produced by the pancreas lowers blood glucose. Absence or insufficient production of insulin, or an inability of the body to properly use insulin causes diabetes. Diabetes causes vary depending on your genetic makeup, family history, ethnicity, health and environmental factors. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition which means that the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Type 2 diabetes starts as insulin resistance. It means that the body can’t use insulin efficiently which stimulates your pancreas to produce more insulin. Gestational diabetes is due to insulin-blocking hormones produced during pregnancy.

  • Track 2-1Type 1 diabetes
  • Track 2-2Type 2 diabetes
  • Track 2-3Gestational diabetes
  • Track 2-4Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults

Diabetic complications generally develop over time. Having poorly controlled blood sugar levels increases the risk which leads to serious complications that can become life-threatening. Chronic complications include Vessel disease, leading to heart attack or stroke, Retinopathy,  Infection or skin conditions, Neuropathy, Nephropathy, Amputations due to neuropathy or vessel disease, Alzheimer’s disease or progressive mental deterioration. High blood sugar levels during pregnancy can harm mother and child, increasing the risk of High Blood Pressure, Pre-eclampsia, Miscarriage Or Stillbirth, Birth Defects

  • Track 3-1Skin diseases
  • Track 3-2Pregnancy Complications
  • Track 3-3Neurological disorders
  • Track 3-4Kidney diseases
  • Track 3-5Alzheimers disease
  • Track 3-6Retinopathy

Diabetes mellitus can be virtually harmless if controlled, but the state of abnormally high blood glucose levels associated with the condition can lead to some serious complications. If left uncontrolled for a long time, or if diabetic patients fail to adapt their lifestyles in order to manage the disease, they will have more difficulty preventing complications from occurring. A serious complication that diabetics may encounter are diabetic wounds. The main concern with diabetic wounds is poor or delayed healing. Healing problems are caused by the peripheral arterial diseases and peripheral neuropathy that can occur with diabetes, wherein the small blood vessels in different parts of the body, especially in the extremities (hands and feet), grow narrower and reduce the blood circulation to those areas. A lack of circulation in the extremities can result in a reduced supply of oxygen and nutrients to the body tissue and nerves, which is necessary for healing. Over time, nerves in these areas may become damaged, decreasing the sensation of pain, temperature and touch, making patients vulnerable to injury. The best treatment is prevention since medical treatment for diabetic wounds provides limited help.

  • Track 4-1Diabetic foot ulcer
  • Track 4-2Diabetic dermopathy
  • Track 4-3Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment

Foot ulcers are a common complication of poorly controlled diabetes, forming as a result of skin tissue breaking down and exposing the layers underneath. They are most common under your big toes and the balls of your feet, and they can affect your feet down to the bones. Unusual swelling, irritation, redness, and odours from one or both feet are also common early symptoms of a foot ulcer. The most visible sign of a serious foot ulcer is black tissue (called eschar) surrounding the ulcer. This forms because of an absence of healthy blood flow to the area around the ulcer.  Diabetic ulcers are most commonly caused by poor circulation, high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia), nerve damage, irritated or wounded feet

  • Track 5-1Hyperglycemia
  • Track 5-2Podiatric Physician
  • Track 5-3Negative pressure wound therapy
  • Track 5-4 Charcot neuroarthropathy

Diabetic retinopathy, also known as diabetic eye disease, is a medical condition in which damage occurs to the retina due to diabetes mellitus. It is a leading cause of blindness. The Symptoms are spots or dark strings floating in your vision (floaters), blurred vision, fluctuating vision. impaired colour vision. dark or empty areas in your vision, Vision loss. Diabetic retinopathy usually affects both eyes. The Complications are Vitreous haemorrhage, Retinal detachment, Glaucoma and Blindness

  • Track 6-1Vitreous hemorrhage.
  • Track 6-2Moderate nonproliferative retinopathy
  • Track 6-3Retinal detachment
  • Track 6-4Glaucoma
  • Track 6-5Blindness
  • Track 6-6Proliferative retinopathy
  • Track 6-7Mild nonproliferative retinopathy
  • Track 6-8Severe nonproliferative retinopathy

Diabetic nephropathy refers to kidney disease that occurs in people with diabetes. The kidneys help regulate the amount of fluids and salts in the body, which helps to control blood pressure and releases different types of hormones. Diabetic nephropathy is when the kidneys become leaky, allowing albumin (a protein made by the liver) to pass into the urine. The condition worsens as the level of albumin increases. The Symptoms are swollen ankles, feet, lower legs, or hands caused by water retention, darker urine, due to blood in the urine, shortness of breath, fatigue, caused by lack of oxygen in the blood, nausea or vomiting, metallic taste. The stages of diabetic nephropathy are determined by the extent of the kidney damage and the glomerular filtration rate, or GFR.

  • Track 7-1Glomerular filtration rate
  • Track 7-2Haemodialysis
  • Track 7-3Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
  • Track 7-4Automated peritoneal dialysis
  • Track 7-5Kidney transplantation

Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that can occur if one has diabetes. High blood sugar (glucose) can injure nerves throughout your body. Diabetic neuropathy most often damages nerves in your legs and feet. Depending on the affected nerves, symptoms of diabetic neuropathy can range from pain and numbness in your legs and feet to problems with your digestive system, urinary tract, blood vessels and heart. Some people have mild symptoms. But for others, diabetic neuropathy can be quite painful and disabling. There are four main types of diabetic neuropathy which are Peripheral neuropathy, Autonomic neuropathy, Radiculoplexus neuropathy and  Mononeuropathy. The complications are difficulty focusing, double vision, aching behind one eye, paralysis on one side of your face (Bell's palsy)

  • Track 8-1Autonomic neuropathy
  • Track 8-2Radiculoplexus neuropathy
  • Track 8-3Mononeuropathy
  • Track 8-4Diabetic peripheral neuropathy
  • Track 8-5Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors
  • Track 8-6Tricyclic antidepressants

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when the body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose). Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a build-up of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms often develop quickly, sometimes within 24 hours. For some, these signs and symptoms may be the first indication of having diabetes which are excessive thirst. frequent urination, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, weakness, confusion etc. 

  • Track 9-1Urinary tract infection
  • Track 9-2Pneumonia
  • Track 9-3Gastroenteritis
  • Track 9-4Fluid replacement
  • Track 9-5Cardiac monitoring

A diabetic bulla is also known as "Bullosis diabeticorum" and "Bullous eruption of Diabetes Mellitus". It is a cutaneous condition characterized by a noninflammatory, spontaneous, painless blister, often in acral locations (peripheral body parts, such as feet, toes, hands, fingers, ears or nose), seen in diabetic patients. Specific treatment of bullous disease of diabetes (Bullosis diabeticorum) is unnecessary because the condition is self-limiting. The blister should be left intact whenever possible to serve as a sterile dressing and to avoid secondary infection. Drug therapy (that is; antibiotics) is only warranted when secondary staphylococcal infection is present. Other differential diagnoses to be considered in these cases are friction blisters, bullous fixed drug reactions, bullous pemphigoid, bullous SLE, and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. Routine histopathological investigations of diabetic bullae show nonspecific features including an intraepidermal or subepidermal bulla.

  • Track 10-1Vesiculobullous Reaction Pattern
  • Track 10-2Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa (DEB)
  • Track 10-3Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa (JEB)
  • Track 10-4Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex (EBS)
  • Track 10-5Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex (EBS)
  • Track 10-6Bullous Pemphigoid
  • Track 10-7Bullous Solar Elastosis

A diabetic coma is a life-threatening diabetes complication that causes unconsciousness. If you have diabetes, dangerously high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) or dangerously low blood sugar (hypoglycaemia) can lead to a diabetic coma. If one experiences a diabetic coma, prompt diagnosis is essential. The following tests should be taken which are blood sugar level, ketone level, amount of nitrogen or creatinine in your blood, amount of potassium, phosphate and sodium in your blood. Diabetic coma requires emergency medical treatment. The type of treatment depends on whether your blood sugar level is too high or too low.

  • Track 11-1Severe Hypoglycemia
  • Track 11-2Hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state
  • Track 11-3Diabetic ketoacidosis
  • Track 11-4Nonketotic hyperosmolar coma

Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is a complication of diabetes mellitus in which high blood sugar results in high osmolarity without significant ketoacidosis. The Symptoms of HHS are altered level of consciousness, neurologic signs including: blurred vision, headaches, focal seizures, myoclonic jerking, reversible paralysis, motor abnormalities including flaccidity, depressed reflexes, tremors or fasciculations, hyperviscosity and increased risk of blood clot formation, dehydration, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, weakness, low blood pressure with standing and abdominal pain. The Diagnosis of HHS are plasma glucose level, serum osmolality, profound dehydration, serum pH, bicarbonate, BUN, creatinine.

  • Track 12-1Cerebral edema
  • Track 12-2Lactic acidosis
  • Track 12-3Cushing syndrome
  • Track 12-4Hyperthermia
  • Track 12-5Hypothermia
  • Track 12-6Mesenteric thrombosis

Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a disorder of the heart muscle in people with diabetes. It can lead to inability of the heart to circulate blood through the body effectively, a state known as heart failure, with accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema) or legs (peripheral edema). Most heart failure in people with diabetes results from coronary artery disease, and diabetic cardiomyopathy. The diagnosis are Conventional Doppler-echocardiography, Intravenous contrast echocardiography (ICE), Doppler acoustic echocardiography, Three dimensional (3D)-echocardiography, Speckle tracking echocardiography(STE), Gradient-Echo-MRI, Multi-slice computed tomography (MsCT), Nuclear imaging.

  • Track 13-1Pulmonary edema
  • Track 13-2Peripheral edema
  • Track 13-3Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH)
  • Track 13-4Mitochondrial dysfunction
  • Track 13-5Diastolic dysfunction (DD) & Systolic dysfunction (SD)
  • Track 13-6Myocardial lipotoxicity

Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is a set of inflammatory conditions affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth. In its early stage, called gingivitis, the gums become swollen, red, and may bleed. In its more serious form, called periodontitis, the gums can pull away from the tooth, bone can be lost, and the teeth may loosen or fall out. Bad breath may also occur. One of its factors is Diabetes Mellitus. Removal of microbial plaque and calculus is necessary to establish periodontal health. The first step in the treatment of periodontitis involves nonsurgical cleaning below the gumline with a procedure called Root Surface Instrumentation or RSI, this causes a mechanical disturbance to the bacterial biofilm below the gumline. This procedure involves the use of specialized curettes to mechanically remove plaque and calculus from below the gumline, and may require multiple visits and local anaesthesia to adequately complete. 

  • Track 14-1Gingivitis
  • Track 14-2Periodontitis
  • Track 14-3Lichen Planus
  • Track 14-4Candidiasis
  • Track 14-5Root Surface Instrumentation therapy

Diabetic Myonecrosis is a rare complication of Diabetes Mellitus which usually present with sudden onset pain of the involved muscle. Diabetic Myonecrosis is an underreported complication of long-standing, poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. It is more common in type I diabetics but can also occur in patients with type II diabetes. Patients often present with acute-onset unilateral muscle pain, tenderness, and swelling. Diagnosis of diabetic myonecrosis begins with a strong clinical suspicion of the disease. Most common differential diagnoses include DVT, Cellulitis Hematoma, Abscess, Pyomyositis, fasciitis, malignancy, leukocyte count, CPK, MRI. Treatment is usually conservative, with bed rest, antiplatelet agents, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In rare cases, surgical exploration may be needed if there are signs of sepsis or compartment syndrome

  • Track 15-1 Arteriosclerosis
  • Track 15-2Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis
  • Track 15-3Tissue Biopsy
  • Track 15-4 Arteriography

Type 2 diabetes(T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for approximately 95 percent of all cases. Obesity is the primary cause for T2DM and the alarming rise in diabetes prevalence throughout the world has been in direct association increase rates of obesity worldwide. Current therapy for type 2 diabetes includes lifestyle intervention (weight-loss, appropriate diet, exercise), anti-diabetes medications and diabetic surgeries The types of Metabolic and Bariatric surgeries are Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, Sleeve gastrectomy (Vertical gastrectomy), Adjustable gastric band and Duodenal switch. 

  • Track 16-1Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass
  • Track 16-2Sleeve Gastrectomy
  • Track 16-3Adjustable Gastric Band
  • Track 16-4Duodenal switch

Eating the right foods and adopting other lifestyle behaviours that promote healthy blood sugar and insulin levels will give you the best chance at avoiding diabetes. There are a few herbs that may help increase insulin sensitivity and reduce the likelihood of diabetes progression which are curcumin and berberine. The major goal in treating type 1 and type 2 diabetes is to control blood sugar (glucose) levels within the normal range, with minimal excursions to low or high levels. Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin, exercise, and a Type 1 diabetes diet. Type 2 diabetes is treated with weight reduction, a type 2 diabetes diet, and exercise, diabetes medications (oral or injected) are prescribed when these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugars of type 2 diabetes. If other medications become ineffective treatment with insulin may be initiated.

  • Track 17-1Preventive measures
  • Track 17-2Conventional treatments
  • Track 17-3Diet maintenence

The artificial pancreas is a technology in development to help people with diabetes automatically control their blood glucose level by providing the substitute endocrine functionality of a healthy pancreas. The approaches are bioengineering, gene therapy and medical equipment. The bioengineering is a biological approach to the artificial pancreas is to implant bioengineered tissue containing islet cells, or stem cells that could differentiate into such cells, which would secrete the amount of insulin, amylin, and glucagon needed in response to sensed glucose. The gene therapy is designing a viral vector to deliberately infect cells with DNA to carry on the viral production of insulin in response to the blood sugar level. The medical equipment approach involves combining a continuous glucose monitor with an implanted insulin pump that can function together to replace the normal function of the pancreas.

  • Track 18-1Type 1 diabetes
  • Track 18-2Working
  • Track 18-3Bio engineering
  • Track 18-4Gene therapy
  • Track 18-5Medical equipment